Dog breeds

Owners can assure you: each puppy has a personality. However, some characteristics are quite common among different pets. Therefore, they are divided into different groups. Learn how dog breeds are defined!

To divide the canine types by means of physical and behavioral patterns, the FCI (International Cynological Federation) stipulated a list with 344 breeds, divided into 11 categories, according to function and morphology. It’s like each race belongs to its own club! How about finding out a little more about each one tonieakes?

Group 1: shepherds and herders, except the Swiss

As the name suggests, it concentrates dogs bred to help with herding. However, there are two differences between them. Shepherds assist in driving herds of sheep and goats, while herdsmen are in charge of rounding up the cattle. The Border Collie dog is part of this group.


Although they appeared in different countries and times, these breeds have in common the fact that they were developed from selective crossings with the aim of mitigating the predator instinct with the herd. Thus, they began to gather the sheep without the urge to attack them.


Shepherds and herdsmen are smart, active and love to have chores to do. No wonder they are often used by the police and firefighters, as is the case with the Australian Cattle Dog . They are also affectionate and adapt well to the family. The best known breeds are: German Shepherd, Shetland Shepherd, Border Collie and Pembroke Welsh Corgi.

Group 2: Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molossers, Mountain Dogs and Swiss Cattle Dogs

The group may seem disunited. After all, what would a Schnauzer and a Doberman have in common? The answer is that both were created to guard and defend!


Dogs in this group were also developed to help with the herd. However, while shepherds and herders were used to round up the animals, these breeds served to protect the herd from other predators. In addition, they were used for heavy work, such as pulling carts.


Ravenous learners, these hardworking dogs are strong, active and highly intelligent. Therefore, although they adapt well to family life, some of them need to spend a lot of energy. 

The instinct is defense, as is the case with the Boxer dog . The best known are: Doberman, Rottweiler, Boxer, Fila, São Bernardo, Schnauzer and Pinscher.

Group 3: Terriers

In this group of dogs are small and medium-sized hunting breeds, such as the Bull Terrier dog . Also, historically, the Yorkshire Terrier is actually an efficient and energetic hunter!


The breeds were bred in the British Isles to hunt agricultural pests such as weasels, rats and other animals that hide in burrows. Including, the word ′′ terrier ′′ comes precisely from this characteristic. From Latin, it means “earth”.


Full of energy, they need a firm hand in training, being famous for their somewhat stubborn personality. Courageous and full of life, they tend to become aggressive towards other dogs if they are not trained early. Check out the most famous: Jack Russell Terrier, Boston Terrier, West Highland White Terrier (Westie) and Yorkshire Terrier.

Group 4: Dachshunds

They are the famous “sausages”! Originally, they are burrow hunters, like Terriers or Teckels. They were placed in a category of their own on account of the unique, elongated and “reduced” size.


Originally from Germany, this breed of small hunters is quite old. Some researchers believe there is evidence of their existence in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs. In Portuguese, the name corresponds to something like “badger dog”. The main breeds in this group are the Dachshund and the Dachshund.


Super companions, they love to spend time with their family. They also like activities that challenge their intelligence and help burn off energy. Despite being hunters, they were not created to run marathons or practice jumps, but they need muscles to support the spine, which often has problems.

Group 5: Primitive, Nordic and Spitz type dogs

Primitive, Nordic and Spitz type dogs have extensive double coats, triangular shaped ears which stand upright and a pointed tail which is usually folded over the back.


Originating from cold regions, they are among the oldest dog breeds, being genetically very close to wolves. One of the most famous of the breed is the Akita dog .

In addition, unlike most races, some names of the primitive group, such as the Basenji, are believed to have emerged, practically, by natural selection. This means that they have suffered almost no genetic intervention by humans.


Like wolves, dogs of these breeds are very sociable and do not like to live alone. Despite this, they are very independent, intelligent and a little stubborn, requiring consistent training. Studies show that due to wolves’ close heritage, they also tend to howl more!

Group 6: tracking dogs and hounds

The dogs in this group are true investigators! They have a keen sense of smell and keen curiosity. Some of them have long drooping ears and large nostrils, which help keep their nose sharp for longer. The Basset Hound dog is the prime example of this.


Bred to be hunting companions, these dogs are divided between trackers, great at chasing prey in sight, and bloodhounds, sniffers. Genetic studies indicate that they are much closer to each other than to any other dog breed.


Fearless and persistent, they love challenges and need plenty of physical activity. A good idea is to take advantage of their special talent for sniffing objects, with games of hide and seek. Another well-known breed from this group is the Beagle dog .

Group 7: Pointing dogs

They are dogs that help in hunting with an unusual technique. They remain immobile, with the body completely stretched out, and the snout pointed towards the place where the prey hides, mainly the birds. The best known are English Pointer, Irish Red Setter and Weimaraner.


There are reports that this type of dog has existed in Europe since 1650. Like the friends in group 6, they came to help with hunting. However, they were selectively developed only to point at prey, not attack it.


Kind and full of energy, “pointers” need a lot of physical activity. They have an excellent sense of smell, which can be stimulated with hide and seek games. They are intelligent and love challenges, being especially talented at learning commands.

Group 8: Raising dogs, game gatherers and water dogs

Very smart and known for learning commands easily, they are great for acting as guide dogs. In addition, they are very loyal companions. Some examples are: Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever and English Cocker Spaniel.


They were also bred to assist in hunting. However, the function was to collect the slaughtered prey. No wonder they are usually exemplary swimmers, as they went to fetch animals slaughtered both on land and in water. 


They are very sociable and easy to train, so some breeds are among the most popular in families. Although they were developed for hunting, they have a series of skills that make them very friendly companions, not to mention that they are very intelligent and learn tricks quickly.

Group 9: companion dogs

Group 9 pets form a very varied class in appearance, but have one thing in common: they are small dog breeds, with the exception of the Poodle.


Separated into 11 sessions in the group due to variety, it is not difficult to imagine that they have different origins. Interestingly, some dogs in the category were bred to hunt mice, like the Maltese. 

Others were true guardians of Tibetan temples, such as the Lhasa Apso. However, thanks to their size and loyalty, these and other breeds are now considered companion breeds.


Because they are selected for living with humans, the breeds are loving and love to play, but attention must be paid to training. Because they are small, they can be very spoiled, needing training and socialization from an early age so they don’t have behavioral problems.

Group 10: greyhounds or greyhounds

In this group, there is another category of hunting dogs: the Greyhounds. Known for their extraordinary speed and lean appearance, they are distinguished by their ability to see. The most famous are the Afghan Hound, the English Greyhound and the Whippet.


These dogs were originally bred to hunt very fast animals such as hares. Despite the selective breeding, some theories suggest that they are descended from very ancient breeds. According to archaeological findings dating back to 4 thousand years BC, the Egyptians already described dogs with similar characteristics.


Very companions of tutors, Greyhounds can be suspicious of strangers. Although they adapt well to small environments, they need to expend a lot of energy, especially when running. Otherwise, they can become stressed and bored. Remember they are great athletes!

It may seem like mere curiosity, but knowing more about dog breeds can be very useful to ensure necessary care! Here, on the Petz blog , you can find out about these and other incredible information about the world of four-legged companions.