Cervical cancer starts in the cells lining the cervix — the lower part of the uterus (womb). The cervix connects the body of the uterus (the upper part where a fetus grows) to the vagina (birth canal). Cells in this area are good at keeping viruses away. But sometimes they can become out of control and grow, leaving them no longer able to stay healthy. This is when cervical cancer begins.
Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). These viruses are prevalent u on Earth, and all of them can cause cervical cancer if they cause specific changes in the cervix. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are responsible for most cervical cancers. The vaccine has been shown to prevent these two strains. The vaccine helps in cervical cancer treatment and also protects against two other types of HPV, 6 and 11, which cause 90% of all preteen cases of genital warts.
Symptoms of Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer symptoms are more often seen in the later stages of the disease when a person has had months to years to develop cancer symptoms. Symptoms can include breast lumps that may be felt by men and women alike, bleeding after intercourse or tampon use, changes to menstrual periods, headaches, and neck stiffness.
The Pap test is an early detection test that aims to prevent cervical cancer. Your doctor will perform this test every two years if you are between the ages of 21 and 65, and yearly if you are older than 65. A Pap smear test is a simple procedure performed by your doctor or nurse, which involves inserting a cotton swab into your vagina to see if there are abnormal cells or signs of cancer on the sample.
The most common symptoms of cervical cancer are:
- discomfort during sexual intercourse
- bleeding between periods
- vaginal discharge with a strong odor
- vaginal discharge tinged with blood
- pelvic pain
- bleeding after sexual intercourse
- bleeding in post-menopausal women
Causes of Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is a disease that occurs when abnormal cells in your cervix become cancerous. This can happen even if you have HPV, but it’s very rare for women with HPV to develop cervical cancer. Most women who get HPV and don’t have cervical cancer won’t develop any symptoms from it. Common causes of cervical cancer include:
Stages of Cervical cancer
The stages of cervical cancer are divided into three categories: Stage 0, Stage I, and Stage II. An oncologist in Delhi will determine their stage after examining the results of one or more tests related to early-stage cervical cancer. This can include a Pap test and biopsy to check for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, which are precancerous but noncancerous growths.
The stages of cervical cancer are based on how far cancer has spread, not how far it has grown. For example, a stage where cancer has spread to just one lymph node doesn’t mean that it will grow much more quickly or affect other lymph nodes. Regardless of the stage, your doctor will explain how long you have to live without treatment and offer treatment options for your individual situation.
Treatment of Cervical cancer
Treatment of cervical cancer may include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Deciding on the kind of treatment depends on several factors, including the stage of cancer, age, and overall state of health. Early-stage cervical cancer is treated with surgery which has a good success rate. If a cancer is in later stages it may be treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, each with its own set of risks and benefits.