Communication in our daily lives takes different forms and exists in many environments. We have different expectations depending on whether we are chatting online or participating in a job interview. Each situation has its corresponding behavior and style.
Before we begin to communicate, we establish rules or agreements that govern the conversation. These rules, or protocols, must be followed for the message to be sent and understood correctly. Some of the protocols that successfully govern human communications are:
- An identified sender and receiver
- Agreed method of communication (in person, telephone, letter, photograph)
- Common language and grammar
- Speed and timing of delivery
- Confirmation or acknowledgment requirements
- Communication rules may vary according to the context. If a message conveys an important fact or concept, confirmation is needed that the message was received and understood correctly. Less important messages may not require an acknowledgment from the recipient.
The techniques used in network communications like 192.168.l.254 share these fundamentals with human conversations. Some rules are assumed because many of the human communication protocols are implicit and ingrained in our culture. When establishing data networks, it is necessary to be much more explicit about the way in which communications are carried out and successful judged.
Organizations and Communication Standards
A standard is a documented agreement that contains technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines or definitions of characteristics to ensure that materials, products, processes and services fulfill their purpose. Therefore, a telecommunications standard is a set of technical standards and recommendations that regulate transmission in communications systems.
Types of Standards
There are three types of standards: de facto, de jure and proprietary. De facto standards are those that have a high penetration and acceptance in the market, but are not yet official.
A de jure or official standard, on the other hand, is defined by official groups or organizations such as the ITU, ISO, ANSI, among others.
The main difference in how de jure and facto standards are generated is that de jure standards are promulgated by groups of people from different areas of knowledge who contribute ideas, resources and other elements to help in the development and definition of a standard, like 192.168.l00.1. specific. In contrast, de facto standards are promulgated by “guided” committees of an entity or company that wants to bring a product or service to market; if it is successful, it is very likely that an Official Organization will adopt it and become a de jure standard.
On the other hand, there are also proprietary “standards” that are wholly owned by a corporation or entity and their use has not yet achieved high market penetration. If a proprietary standard is successful, by achieving more market penetration, it can become a de facto standard and even become a de jure standard when adopted by an official body.
Types of Organizations
There are two types of organizations that define standards: Official organizations and manufacturer consortia.
The first type of organization is made up of independent consultants, members of state departments or secretaries of different countries, or other individuals. Examples of this type of organization are the ITU, ISO, ANSI, IEEE, IETF, IEC, among others.
Manufacturer consortiums are made up of communications equipment manufacturers or software developers who jointly define standards for their products to enter the telecommunications and network market (e.g. ATM Forum, Frame Relay Forum, Gigabit Ethernet Alliance, ADSL Forum, etc. ). One advantage of consortia is that they can more quickly bring the benefits of promulgated standards like 192.168.o.1 to the end user, while official organizations take longer to release them.
Communication begins with a message or information that needs to be sent from one person or device to another. People exchange ideas through various methods of communication. All of these methods have three elements in common. The first of these elements is the origin of the message, or sender. Message sources are people or electronic devices that need to send a message to other people or devices. The second element of communication is the destination or recipient of the message. The destination receives the message and interprets it. A third element, called a channel, is made up of the media that provide the path along which the message travels from origin to destination.
Consider, for example, that you want to communicate through words, pictures, and sounds. Each of these messages can be sent over a data or information network by first converting them into binary digits or bits. These bits are then encoded into a signal that can be transmitted over the appropriate medium. In computer networks, the medium is usually some type of wired or wireless transmission.
The term network in this course refers to data or information networks capable of transmitting many different types of communications, including traditional computer data, interactive voice, video, and entertainment products.